Camille Saint-Saens receives his Doctorate - Years ago today. Monday Night at the Movies. Thursday Evening Classics.
Composer Birthdays for May and June. Your "lyric theater" program. Sunday pm. Trial by Jury. Delayed by a Winter that wouldn't quit, it's finally cherry blossom time: time to listen once again to that alltime popular favorite of operas, Giacomo Puccini's Madama Butterflywith its lovely Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque duet" for Cio-Cio San and Suzuki.
There have been many wonderful Cio-Cio Sans in the history of recorded sound. The Irish soprano Margaret Burke Sheridan was cast in the role for the first electric recording of the entire opera in One of the most beloved of Butterflys was the Italian soprano Renata Scotto in the mid twentieth century.
The stereo recording of Butterfly she made in ,the one with Barbirolli conducting, was the first of two she made for EMI. There's a copy in our station's classical record library that I have drawn upon twice for broadcast, first way back on Sunday, December 7, and then more lately on Sunday, March 30, Another admirable soprano of recent times, the Ukrainian Svetlana Katchour recorded Butterfly in its full La Scala version for the Naxos label, capturing the sound of a production in the German city of Bremen.
This recording gives us Puccini's complete score of the work. Essentially a studio recording, it was made in the Rome Opera House. Erich Leinstorf was conducting.
Pinkerton was the distinguished Italian tenor Cesare Valetti. I employ those vintage RCA platters. Beyond Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas, little is remembered today about English opera in general in the Victorian era.
First, you need to know there was a wealth of it. One good example Presence Of Mind - 100 Flowers - 100 Flowers it is Wallace's Maritanaenormously popular in its time, now completely forgotten.
The Naxos studio recording of Lurline, with legendary opera conductor Richard Bonynge in charge, went over the air on Sunday, June 12, The plot of Maritana is ridiculous. It concerns an alluring Spanish Gypsy street singer and her dalliances with the nobility of Spain. She was involved in the intrigues of the court of Versailles. Fall's Madame Pompadour, his last operetta, premiered not in Vienna, but in Berlin in Andreas Schuller directs the chorus and orchestra of the Volksoper.
Joseph Bodin de Boismortier wrote a lot of instrumental music in the ornate Rococo style, but he also wrote four lyric stageworks, one of which is Don Quichotte It is styled a "comic ballet" in three acts, and while there's plenty of dancing and good dance tunes in it,it is essentially a satirical theaterwork- a French baroque sendup of the Spanish author Cervantes' novel, which was satirical to begin with.
The cultural resources of the Lorraine region of France made possible a studio recording of Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse. Herve Niquet directed his period instrument ensemble Le Concert Spirituel, with eleven vocal soloists. That recording was issued under the Naxos label on a single compact disc in Ricky Ian Gordon b. He has essayed one of the most traditional subjects in all of operatic literature, the ancient Greek Orphic myth.
I broadcast the world premiere recording of his Orpheus and Euridice on Sunday, July 6, He has also tackled historical subjects. Memorial Day, formerly called Decoration Day, began as a special day to honor those who fought and died in the American Civil War.
The songs of Rappahannock County are grouped as if they were the five acts of an opera, one act for each year of the conflict, from in succession to The location of the Rappahannock river in Virginia serves as a boundary between North and South. The lyrics of Mark Campbell are derived ultimately from letters, diaries and personal accounts of the 's. A cast of five singers portray more than thirty different characters.
They bring the period Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque life and express the devastating impact the war had on all who endured it. This one was commissioned to mark the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of the great national poet Alexander Pushkin in The premiere staging of the opera was not ready, however, until the following year.
The story presented in the opera is derived almost without alteration from one of Pushkin's fantastical tales.
Rimsky's score for Tsar Saltan contains the famous "Flight of the Bumble Bee'- the fantastical, fluttery tune in the orchestra intended in the opera to accompany the scene in which the hero Prince Gvidon is magically transformed into a bumble bee so he can travel farther and faster than a human being. The recording was originally made in Moscow inso it qualifies as a historical audio document of this work. This gem of a bel canto opera takes its story from a novel by Sir Walter Scott.
When I broadcast it on Sunday, June 8, you heard this well known Excerpts From Alice - Self-Delusion* - Pride by Gaetano Donizetti in its French language version, titled Lucie de Lammermoor. Originally produced in Naples inthe opera reached Paris in Bélénos - Jean-Jacques Goldman Et Roland Romanelli - Astérix & Obélix Contre César (Bande Originale Petersburg, Russia inwith Valery Gergiev conducting.
Now you get to hear another notable soprano of our time, the German Diana Damrau as Lucia, again in a concert production of the work recorded live in performance in Jesus Lopez-Cobos conducted the orchestra We Will Rock You - Various - Die Hit-Giganten - Rocksongs chorus of the Munich Opera. You listeners may remember Damrau's interpretations of the songs of Richard Strauss for Virgin Classics broadcast on Sunday, June 10, This recording restores the long cadenza with flute obbligato to Lucia's famous mad scene.
Ironically, this most famous passage from the opera was not composed by Donizetti! Also restored to the mad scene is the part Donizetti did write for the. Lucia di Lammermoor was the one specimen opera of the Italian bel canto era to remain within the international repertoire right through the succeeding half-century period of the verismo style. A lthough I certainly would like to air them, I confess I have never broadcast any of the fifteen operas of Darius Milhaud I simply have never run across any recordings of them.
There has, however, come into my hands recently a recording of Milhaud's trilogy of oratorios, all three of them intensely dramatic in their treatment of the ancient Greek myths dealing with the murderous Orestes and the cursed House of Atreus. Milhaud worked on his Oresteia trilogy over the periodemploying a French translation of the Greek text by Catholic poet Paul Claudel.
Milhaud's personal style of composition changed over the decade he labored on it. This latter part of the trilogy was actually staged years later as an opera directed by the composer's wife. And on top of all that there are branches of the French Museum of The Longest Road - Morgan Page - Elevate History on the edges of the park, including galleries for Palaeontology and Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French BaroqueBotany, Mineralogy and My Dad The Manatee - Wavelets - Discography and Evolution, all in separate pavilions.
The museum was founded in to recognise French contributions to science and technology, and around 2, objects from an archive of more than 80, are on show. Southeast of the city, the Bois de Vincennes is the largest park in Paris at almost 1, hectares. That property, famed for its towering keep was where the English King Henry V died in Across from the Petit Palais, the Grand Palais is from that flurry of construction leading up to the Exposition Universelle in A fascinating exhibit here is the School of Rats, where real research is being done on the learning processes of animals.
In the 3rd and 4th arrondissements, the Marais was once swampy, uninhabitable ground north of the city. Crossing the cosmopolitan 19th, 10th and 11th arrondissements, the Canal Saint-Martin is 4.
The canal was started under Napoleon in with the intention of channelling clean drinking water into the city and minimising diseases like cholera. Later that century warehouses were built on its banks, and these have since become stylish homes. The banks are lined with shops, cafes and bars with waterside terraces, and you can pause for a few minutes under the foliage in an area of the city not many tourists see.
Montmartre was really put on the map in the last decades of the 19th century when Monet, Toulouse-Lautrec, Renoir, Pissarro, van Gogh and Modigliani lived and worked in the neighbourhood. Look for the Moulin de la Galette, a 17th-century windmill immortalised by Renoir, van Gogh and Pissarro.
Anne of Austria, Queen to Louis XIII, laid the foundation stone for a dramatic Baroque redesign inalthough work would drag on for almost a century due to conflicts like the Fronde civil wars from to The grand scale of the church becomes clear as soon as you step inside: The highlight is the first side chapel on the right, the Chapelle des Saints-Anges, which has murals painted by Delacroix from And the high concentration of young people made it the nerve centre of the protest movements in the s that shook France to its foundations.
Nearly all are from the first decades of the 19th century, smartly cutting between two parallel streets to make the most of the limited space in the city at the time. And two others worth a mention are Passage du Caire, the longest at metres and hosting clothing wholesalers, and Galerie Colbert, which is owned by the National Institute of Art History and the only public passage without shops.
But a more convenient and much cheaper alternative to Disneyland Paris lies in the northern part of the Bois de Boulogne. There are carousels, pony rides, a zip-line, a miniature train, an enchanted river ride, a boating lake, small roller LFO (The Leeds Warehouse Mix) - Various - Global Underground and all manner of playgrounds including one with water that is always a hit with little ones in summer.
And ever-popular are the animal habitats for donkeys, sheep, alpacas, camels, pigs, or the peacocks that go where they please. Henry IV ordered the bridge, and he is remembered with an equestrian statue from at the point where the bridge crosses the island.
Like many royal monuments the statue fell victim to the Revolution and was destroyed inbut then restored in At the dawn of the 20th century the banker Albert Kahn set out on a mission to record the world with photography and film.
Over 22 years he sent photographers and cameramen to all corners of the globe. And the project was only stopped by the Wall Street Crash. In four hectares there are French and English gardens, as well as a traditional and contemporary Japanese garden. And from China there are statues and porcelain, paintings and reliefs from various dynasties dating back to the Han Dynasty in the 1st century.
If you have time to kill before your entry slot for the Louvre, you could do a lot worse than take a closer look at this stunning church on the east side. The 15th-century main portal is original, and has beautiful carvings on its archivolts and jambs, while inside is a sensational 13th-century wooden statue of Saint-Germain, a Flemish 16th-century altarpiece and a pew designed for Louis XIV by Charles Le Brun and Claude Perrault in the s.
Responsible for the ornamentation was the sculptor Jean Goujon, who contributed the masterful friezes, high-reliefs, drapery and statues in the niches from to You can while away a few minutes at La Lanterne revelling in a panorama of Paris that not many tourists get to see. Built with a single arch to allow boats to pass below, you could call Pont Alexandre III the perfect Beaux-Arts statement in the way it combines technical mastery with extravagant decoration.
The two on the right bank represent the arts and science, while those on the left bank are for commerce and industry. It was developed in the reign of Louis XIII from the beginning of the 17th century, and there are still a few handsome townhouses from this period.
In the s and s this was a neighbourhood in the same vein as Le Marais or Faubourg Saint-Germain. The purpose of a visit now is to escape the crowds, explore its small grid of streets and dine at one of the bistros or brasseries. Berthillon here is an ice cream parlour with worldwide fame for its exotic sorbets like passion fruit and fig.
In a park opened on what had only recently been a quarry for gypsum and limestone in the northeast of the city proper. The picturesque waterfall inside the grotto is fed by waters from the Canal Saint-Martin and ends up in the lake at the base of My Soul Is A Witness - Various - Swing Time Gospel The Acapella Groups Vol 1 CD rock.
In an old wine warehouse Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque the southeast of the city is an astounding collection of vintage fairground rides and automata put together by the art and antiques dealer Jean Paul Favand.
There are 14 rides in total, among which are carousels and merry-go-rounds, as well Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque 16 stalls for games and more than 1, smaller curiosities like a Hooghuys Organ, all dating from to A quick jaunt from the Palais Garnier is the flagship of the revered department Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque brand, Galeries Lafayette.
Receiving around 25 million shoppers a year, this one store generates 1. In it was given its first makeover, and this is when the monumental Neo-Byzantine was installed, 43 metres above the shop floor. But from he built himself a park in what is now the extremely posh northern part of the 8th arrondissement. The square outside is packed with noisy traders selling seasonal fruit, vegetables, flowers and fresh herbs. Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making.
The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.
Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World. Even if the French have the reputation of being Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque of the thinnest people in developed countries,      France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesitydue mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.
French education is centralized and divided into three stages: Primary, secondary, and higher education. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.
Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialization and development of a basic grasp of language and number.
Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship. Secondary education also consists of two phases. France has been a center of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition.
The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.
The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.
The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include 3rd Of June - Yello - Flag residences many castles and religious buildings cathedralsbasilicaschurchesbut also statues, memorials and gardens. The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. Jean Fouquetthe most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.
The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentinowho both worked in France. The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism.
In the second part of the 19th century, France's influence over painting became even more important, with the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers.
During this era, Speedy - Arisawkadoria - Chapter One had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque Basilica in Toulousethe largest romanesque church in Europe,  and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.
The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. The final victory in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French The Sound Of Blue And Green (T.O.S. First Pass) - Damen & Wabansia - Presents. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.
However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one.
Jules Hardouin Mansartwho designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides. On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey. After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although it was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such buildings as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.
Under Napoleon IIIa new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built. The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaductand remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.
More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building. The Leicester - The Chalk Giants - These Things Ive Done.
A Compilation Of The First Ten Years difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, sincenew buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.
The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ageswhen what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of Francesuch as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.
The Roman de Renartwritten in by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the medieval character Reynard 'the Fox' and is another example of early French writing. Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century.
His most famous work, EssaisShakin All Over - Various - 100 Rock n Roll Hits the literary genre of the essay. Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.
French literature Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During that same century, Charles Perrault was a Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in BootsCinderellaSleeping Beauty and Bluebeard.
The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times"  for excelling in all literary genres.
The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque.
The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. Descartes revitalised Western philosophywhich had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.
In The Spirit of the LawsBaron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powerswhich has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States. Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion. In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead 's version of process philosophy.
France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court. After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.
Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French Cold Ethyl - Alice Cooper - Welcome To My Nightmare (VHS) played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.
Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity. This period was also a golden age for operas. Later came precursors of modern classical music. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music.
Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.
The two composers invented new musical forms     and new sounds. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eauMiroirsLe tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuitdemand considerable virtuosity. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice OhanaPierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of When You Walk Away - Vaughn - Fearless 20th century. In the s and s decadeelectronic duos Daft PunkJustice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the Government of France. France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.
For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,  although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.
Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s. Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses.
The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: la mode dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV  when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe. But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: couture or haute couture industry in the years — through the establishing of the great couturier houses such as ChanelDiorand Givenchy.
The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse. In the s, the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture.
The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateurcentrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point more than Like in most industrialized nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.
Inthe government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent,   but in it had to giveeuros to help the print media cope with the economic crisisin addition to existing subsidies. Inafter years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations   remained under state-control.
It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. Public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations. Inthe government created global news channel France According to a poll inthe French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque primarily in term of nationality and not religion.
The French Revolution continues to permeate the country's collective memory. In addition, Bastille Daythe national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.
Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins. France is one of the world leaders of gender equality in the workplace: as ofit has France is also committed to protecting the environment: inFrance was ranked 2nd in the Environmental Performance Index behind neighboring Switzerlandout of countries ranked by Yale University in that study.
French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. France's most renowned products are wines including Champagne, BordeauxBourgogneand Beaujolais as well as a large variety of different cheesessuch as CamembertRoquefort and Brie. There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites.
French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. By Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroquethe Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country byJapan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.
In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. France produces rum via distilleries located on islands such as Reunion Island in the southern Indian Ocean. SinceFrance is famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race.
French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertinwho suggested the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century.
Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed " Les Bleus " in reference to the team's shirt colour as well as the national French tricolour flag. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs. The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.
Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic leaguethe French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Anything You Want, You Got It - April Wine - Power Play World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.
Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in Heartbreaker - Various - Phil Spector Wall Of Sound Vol.
5 - Rare Masters. Judo is an important sport in France. It is the second country, after Japan, to have the most gold medals. Teddy Riner has won ten World Championships gold medals, the first and only judoka to do so, and David Douillet has won four, making them respectively the first and third top judokas in the world in terms of gold medals.
In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: in and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses of "La France", see Lafrance. For other uses of "France", see France disambiguation. Country in Western Europe. Great Seal :. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total askm2sq mi. Main article: Name of France. Main article: History of France. Main article: Prehistory of France.
Main articles: GaulCeltsand Roman Gaul. Main articles: FranciaMerovingian dynastyand Carolingian dynasty. See also: France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century. Main article: France in the twentieth century.
Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque article: Geography of France. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main article: Administrative divisions of France. Hauts-de- France. Grand Est. Centre- Val de Loire. Pays de la Loire. Nouvelle- Aquitaine. French Guiana. United Kingdom. Bay of Biscay. Ligurian Sea. Mediterranean Sea. Main article: Politics of France. Main article: Law of France. Main article: Foreign relations of France. Main article: French Armed Forces. Bastille Day in Paris. National Gendarmerie. Combined Arms School.
See also: Taxation in France. Main article: Economy of France. Main article: Tourism in France. Further information: Energy in France. Main article: Transport in France. Main articles: Science and technology in France and List of French inventions and discoveries. Main articles: Demographics of France and French people. See also: Urban area France and Urban unit. Largest cities or towns in France census.
Main articles: French languageLanguages of Franceand Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Native language. Administrative language. Secondary or non-official language. Francophone minorities. Main article: Religion in France. No religion Other religion 3. Unanswered 1. Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque article: Health in France.
Main article: Education in France. Main article: Culture of France. Main article: French art. Main article: French architecture. Main article: French literature. Main article: French philosophy. Main article: Music of France. Main article: Cinema of France. Main article: French fashion.
Main article: Telecommunications in France. Main article: French cuisine. Main article: Sport in France. France Premier Air - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Baroque. France also uses. All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.
Demographic Yearbook. United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 4 September Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 31 July International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 15 October United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December The World Factbook. Retrieved 1 November Lexington Books. Palmer; Joel Colton A History of the Modern World 5th ed. United Nations World Tourism Organization.
The World Bank Group. Credit Suisse. October Archived PDF from the original on 9 November Retrieved 27 October World Health Organization. Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 17 July American Heritage Dictionary.
Webster's Third New International Dictionary. And so on. In Paul Veyne ed. Belknap Press. The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons: the most comprehensive reference work ever published on arms and armor from prehistoric times to the present with over 1, illustrations. Retrieved 5 July Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.
English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change. Multilingual Matters Ltd. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 23 January A history of ancient Greece. Archived from the original on 22 July Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 16 July Archived from the original on 6 August Retrieved 21 July The Story of French.
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Welcome To The Machine - Pink Floyd - Live In Australia, Mörka Drömmar - Vemoth - Köttkroksvals, Speed Parade - Slash Featuring Myles Kennedy - Live- Made In Stoke 24/7/11 (Blu-ray), Night And Day (Potential Bad Boy Mix) - JWM And Rankin. D.* Featuring Cutty Ranks - Night And Day, We Je Die Bass - Skudero - The Killer Album, Occult - Stoned Jesus - First Communion, I Want - Various - Lilith Fair (A Celebration Of Women In Music), Change - Ron Ron Clou / Samanthas Favourite - Where Is My Guitar..., Letter To Mommy And Daddy - Barbara Lynn - The Best Of Barbara Lynn, We Je Die Bass - Skudero - The Killer Album, Space Age Love Song - Brief Candles - They Live We Sleep